Polar Winds: A Century of Flying the North




Chapter 1: Gold, Glory, and Spectacle

1. Information in the following paragraphs from Gray, Gold 5, 11, 17–21, and 24–25.

2. Berton, I Married the 107.

3. Winslow, Big “Miners Pay Duty, Americans are Met by Customs Officers at Victoria,” Bellingham Bay July 30, 1897.

4. Teresa Earle, “Yukon’s unique transportation heritage,” The Yukon January 28, 2005.

5. Berton, 119-20.

6. Milberry, Air Transport in Canada, Vol. 12; and Vance, High 1. This had taken place August 10, 1840 in Saint John, New Brunswick when Louis Anselm Lauriat ascended in his Star of the East.

7. Nelson, “Airships in the Arctic,” 278. A full account of Andrée’s exploits can be found in P.J. Capelotti’s By Airship to the North Pole: An Archaeology of Human Exploration (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1999).

8. Les McLaughlin, “To the Klondike, James – by airship!” Whitehorse March 13, 2009, 15.

9. Information in the previous paragraph from “By Air Ship to Klondike,” New York August 30, 1897.

10. “Klondike Airship Scheme,” New York November 26, 1897.

11. McLaughlin, “To the Klondike,” Whitehorse

12. Berton, 120.

13. Ibid.

14. “Canadians for Klondike,” New York September 26, 1897, 4. Sources at the time vary the spelling of de l’Etoile considerably: the New York Times article spells his name J. De L. Etoiler, and in a letter dated September 27, 1886 to the Minister of Defence and Militia in which he makes the proposition, his name is written L’Etoile. However, there is a Joseph de L’Etoile listed at 526 King St. in the Ottawa City Directory for 1897–98, and this spelling is the one used most often.

15. “By Air Ship to Klondike,” New York August 30, 1897.

16. “Canadians for Klondike,” New York

17. Obituary of Dr. Anthony Variclé in the New York July 27, 1907. Antoine is often anglicized in the accounts of the day as “Antony” or ”Anthony.”

18. “In Search of Andrée,” Victoria Daily Colonist, June 5, 1898, 3.

19. Antony Variclé, “My First Aerial Stampede,” Northern 12–15.

20. “News of the Week,” San Juan April 14, 1898; and “To Klondyke [sic] in a Balloon,” Wanganui Herald [New Zealand], May 31, 1898.

21. “In Search of Andrée,” Victoria Daily Colonist.

22. On March 5, 1903, Variclé was listed in the Dental Register for Dawson and paid the annual fee until 1907. W. S. Dill’s The Long Day (Ottawa: The Graphic Publishers Ltd., 1926), mentions Diamond Tooth Gertie specifically.

23. The term “Professor” was used by performers of the day to give themselves more credibility and allure with audiences. Milberry, Air Transport in Canada, Vol. 1, 13.

24. Leonard Back in North,” Dawson Daily June 17, 1903.

25. Information in this paragraph from “Balloon Ascension,” Weekly May 30, 1903; and “An Airship’s Flight,” Dawson Daily August 30, 1899.

26. Berton, 354.

27. Vance, High 7.

28. Ibid., 2.

29. Coates and Morrison, Land of the Midnight 10 and 15.

30. “Balloon Ascension,” Weekly Star.

31. “Attractions Up To Date of All Kinds and Nature, Even to Ballooning,” Dawson Daily September 9, 1899.

32. John Leonard to John Newman (Colorado), December 2, 1899. University of Washington Special Collections — Digital Collections. John Emmett Berns Papers, Accession no. 740-1 Box 1.

33. “Up in a Balloon — Professor Leonard Makes a Successful Flight on Saturday,” Dawson Daily May 27, 1900.

34. Information in this paragraph from: “Leonard’s Balloon Destroyed,” Dawson Daily May 28, 1900, 4; and “The Baloon [sic] Burned,” Daily Klondike Nugget, May 28, 1900.

35. Information in preceding paragraph from: “Up in a Balloon,” Daily Klondike June 8, 1900; “Tonight the Balloon,” Daily Klondike June 9, 1900; “Did Not Ascend,” Daily Klondike June 11, 1900; and “A Successful Daily Klondike June 12, 1900.

36. Information in following section from: “Balloon Ascension,” Weekly “Aeronaut Falls Into the River Leonard Sends Thrills of Excitement Through Crowd on First Avenue,” Yukon June 26, 1903; and“Prof. Leonard Back in North,” Dawson Daily June 17, 1903.

37. “Prof. Leonard,” Dawson Daily May 2, 1904[?].

38. “Northern News Budget,” Victoria Daily February 15, 1900, and “To Klondyke in a Balloon,” Wanganui Herald.

39. Grierson, Challenge to the 41; and Nelson, “Airships in the Arctic,” 278.

40. “In Search of Andrée,” Victoria Daily Colonist, June 5, 1898, 3.

41. Grierson, 40–42; and Nelson, “Airships in the Arctic,”

42. Information in the previous paragraph from: Grant, Polar Imperative.

43. “International Yukon Polar Institute,” Dawson, Yukon Territory, Founded August 5, 1905,” University of California — Berkley Internet Archive.

44. Davies and Ellis, Seattle’s Commercial 13. One of his sons, Roger, ended up becoming a pilot in Seattle and “conducted test flights in the so-called ‘Flying Bed Post’ by Eugene Romano in 1911 and 1912.”

45. Nelson, “Airships in the Arctic,”

46. Grierson, 23.

47. Nelson, “Airships in the Arctic,” 279; Rob Mulder, “In the air with Roald Amundsen,” (accessed May 17, 2014); and Kenneth P. Czech, “Roald Amundsen and the 1925 North Pole Expedition,” Aviation published online June 6, 2009, (accessed May 15, 2014).

48. Nelson, “Airships in the Arctic,” 280; and Wittreich, Forgotten First 260.

49. Nelson, “Airships in the Arctic,” 279–80.

50. McAllister, Wings Above the Arctic: A Photographic History of Arctic 9–16.

51. Information in the following three paragraphs from: Nelson, “Airships in the Arctic,” 280–83.

52. Information in the previous paragraph from: Henry, Uncharted 124; and Milberry, Air Transport in Canada, Vol. 83.


Chapter 2: The Era of Expeditions

1. Information in this section from: Berton, I Married the Klondike, 35–36, 40–41, 97–99; and “1909 Government Publication on transportation, Yukon Territory: Its History & Resources,” in the clippings folders at the Dawson City Museum.

2. Gov 2492 File 3, City of Whitehorse fonds, Yukon Archives. As with many names at the time — especially non-Anglophone ones — there are a variety of spellings in the records. This appears to be the most likely spelling.

3. “Klondike Joins in the Fun: Dawson has an aeroplane enthusiast now hard at work,” Dawson Weekly September 23, 1910; and “Airship for Yukoners,” Whitehorse Weekly April 18, 1918.

4. Weicht, Air Route to the 111 and 257; and Ruotsala, Pilots of the

5. Grierson, Challenge to the 49. For the details of the flight from New York to Alaska and back, please see Grierson, 50–56 and F.H. Ellis, “New York to Nome and back,” The Beaver (September 1949), 28–32.

6. Tim Sims, “Navigation and the Early Bush Pilot,” Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society (Winter 1976), 125.

7. Letter of agreement between Howard T. Douglas, Captain, ASA to Robert Lowe signed June 17, 1920, Newmarch Collection, MacBride Museum.

8. Information in preceding paragraph from Ellis, “New York to Nome and back,” 28–32.

9. Berton, I Married the 133, 135, 141–42.

10. Frances Watson to Mrs. McTurnan, February 20, 1930, Gov 2492, File 9, Yukon Archives.

11. The information about the flights to Dawson is from: Berton, I Married the 143; “Red Letter Day in Yukon’s History,” Weekly August 30, 1920; Archie Gillespie, “The Day the First Planes Came to Dawson,” Yukon May 26, 1965.

12. The information about Prest’s journey up to Dawson City and his performance there from: “Flyer Prest arrives in Dawson City,” Dawson Daily July 12, 1922; “Many will be here to see Prest perform,” Dawson Daily July 14, 1922; “Flyer Prest at Selkirk — Here Tomorrow,” Dawson Daily July 10, 1922; “Flyer Prest just missed a big storm,” Dawson Daily July 11, 1922; Weicht, Air Route to the 115; and McAllister, Wings Over the 12–13.

13. Information about Prest’s journey from Dawson to Fairbanks: “Flyer will take letters from Dawson,” Dawson Daily July 14, 1922; “Welcome to flier,” Dawson Daily July 10, 1922; “Prest started cross-country — no trace,” Dawson Daily July 18, 1922; “Flyer Prest’s own story of notable trip,” Dawson Daily July 21, 1922; “Aviator Prest is safe — landed in tundra,” Dawson Daily July 20 1922; “Luck ‘O Prest,” Dawson Daily July 21, 1922; and Weicht, Air Route to the 258–60.

14. “Airplane in Yukon,” Dawson Daily July 12, 1922.

15. Zaslow, The Northward Expansion of 22.

16. Main, Voyageurs of the 36–37; and Ken M. Molson, “The Rene and Vic,” Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society (Summer 1982), 41–55. First-hand accounts were published by all four Imperial Oil employees involved as well as three people on-site. As can be expected, they occasionally gave conflicting accounts; I have gone with the most commonly accepted — and probable — course of events.

17. Grant, Polar 224; “What happened at Fort Simpson, NWT, during winter 1921?” The Beaver (July 1921); and Zaslow, 23–24.

18. Paul Miller, “Keep ‘em flying,” Imperial Oil Review (Autumn 1999), 26–30; Molson, “The Rene and Vic,” 44; and “The Wilderness is Shrinking,” The Beaver (February 1921).

19. For a full account of May and Gorman’s preparations, please see Molson, “The Rene and Vic,” 42–44. Molson concedes, however, that dates and the exact purpose of this September flight are unknown.

20. Main, Voyageurs of the 38.

21. Account of flights to NWT gleaned from: Molson, “The Rene and Vic,” 44–46; Godsell, Pilots of the Purple 32–33, 37–38; and F.C. Jackson, “Home-made HBC propellers bring back Ft. Norman planes,” The Beaver (May 1921).

22. Grant, Polar 224–25. For an in-depth exploration of the tensions between Inuit and Canadian cultural understandings during this period, please see: Grant, Arctic For more information on Logan, Bernier, and the 1922 patrol please see: Ernest Cable, “Air Force - a Leader in the Arctic” (paper, Air Force Historical Workshop, Montreal, 2010).

23. Information on Logan’s 1922 reconnaissance mission and findings: Thomson, Skyview 38–39; Ellis, Canada’s Flying 217–20; Douglas, Creation of a National Air 106.

24. Account of MacMillan Expedition from: A.E. Ted Hill, “Arctic Curtain Raiser,” CAHS Journal (winter 1985), 122–23; Ellis, Canada’s Flying 220–22; Grierson, Challenge to the 93–98; Grant, Polar 227–37; and Erik Watt, “Pushing the Frontier Back,” Up Here (May/June 1995), 51.

25. Aviation historians have written extensively on this operation. Please see: A/V/M T.A. “Tommy” Lawrence, “The Hudson Strait Expedition,” CAHS Journal (Fall 1982), 83–88; Grierson, Challenge to the 138–43; Ellis, Canada’s Flying 221–27; and Main, Voyageurs of the 76–81.

26. Milberry, Sixty 33; Gibson- Sutherland, Canada’s Aviation 22; Ellis, Canada’s Flying 232–34; Milberry, Air Transport in Vol. 1, 71; Bernt Balchen, “My Introduction to Canada,” CAHS Journal (Summer 1976), 39.

27. Information in this paragraph from: Cable, “Air Force – a Leader in the Arctic”; Douglas, Creation of a National Air Force, 106; and Thomson, Skyview 39.

28. Preceding story taken from: Flt. Lt. E.P. Wood, “Northern Skytrails, part 9,” The Roundel (July 1949); Milberry, Sixty 33; and Cable, “Air Force — a Leader in the Arctic.” Bobby’s last name is absent from most accounts, save Frank Ellis’s works, “The Aerial Survey of Hudson Strait 1927–8,” The Roundel (May 1965) and Canada’s Flying 224. Many Inuit did not use last names until Project Surname in 1969.

29. Zaslow, 39; Milberry, Sixty 33; and E.P. Wood, “Northern Skytrails,” The Roundel (November 1948), 31.

30. Information in this paragraph from: Zaslow, 102.

31. Several books have mistakenly called it The Bouncing Jack’s son, Colin Caldwell, and the majority of early sources note that it was in fact “Bruno,” although none suggest where the nickname originated.

32. This story pieced together from: Ellis, Canada’s Flying 213; Milberry, Air Transport in Canada, Vol. 54–55; Watt, “Pushing the Frontier Back,” 51; and Erik Watt, “Those Magnificent Men and their flying machines,” Up Here (June/July 1993), 27.

33. Zaslow, 104. Other early Northern Aerial Mineral Exploration Ltd (NAME) examples can be found in: Millberry, Air Transport in and Moar, A Collection of Bush Flying

34. Information for this section taken from: Henry, Uncharted 31; and Sims “Navigation and the Early Bush Pilot.” For other instances of aerial prospecting during this era, please see: Watt, “Those Magnificent Men and their flying machines;” Milberry, Air Transport in 35–38, 72–75; Ellis, Canada’s Flying 243–46; and S. R. (Stan) McMillan, “My Flying Career: A Legendary Northern Pilot recalls the adventurous side of a lifetime in aviation,” CAHS Journal (Spring 2002), 4–15 and 36–37.

35. Much has been written about the Mac-Alpine expedition, as well as the subsequent search and rescue operations. I used the following sources for this section: Milberry, Aviation in 39–40; Melady, Pilots, 65–67; Milberry, Air Transport in Canada, Vol. 1, 81–83; Main, Voyageurs of the 69–72; Ellis, Canada’s Flying 246–47, and 253–62; Zaslow, 105–7; Henry, Uncharted 33–37 and 59; McMillan, “My Flying Career,” 51; and a Western Canada Airways report reprinted in two parts in the Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society (Summer and Fall 1977). For a highly readable, detailed account, please see: Karram, Four Degrees

36. Melady, 52.

37. Information in this paragraph is from: Vance, High 38, 75, and 109.


Chapter 3: Hope in the Sky

1. Information in this paragraph is from: Coates and Morrison, Land of the Midnight Sun, 166; Watt, “Pushing the Frontier Back,” 52; and Erik Watt, “History and Mystery,” Up Here (January/February 1999), 87.

2. For more on these ventures, please see: Mallory, Peter C. Newman, Merchant Princes (Toronto: Penguin Books Canada, 1991), 238; Ellis, Canada’s Flying 248–49; Zaslow, 180–82; and Milberry, Air Transport in Vol.1, 132.

3. Information in the previous paragraph from Mallory, 173, and 176–92.

4. Details in this paragraph from: “Farthest North Pipeline,” Canadian Aviation (July 1937), 29; and McLaren, Bush to Boardroom, 29.

5. Mallory, 188, 199, 222 and 226; and McLaren, Bush to 31.

6. McLaren, Bush to Boardroom, 12, 15, and 18.

7. Reid, Wings of a 69.

8. McLaren, Bush to 20.

9. Henry, Uncharted 190.

10. Ibid., 160.

11. McMillan, “My Flying Career,” 13 and 36.

12. Henry, Uncharted 155. This account spells his name “Meilike” but all other sources have the spelling I have used here.

13. Ibid., 100.

14. Watt, “Pushing the Frontier Back,” 52.

15. McLaren, Bush to 23.

16. Information for this paragraph and next taken from: Reid, Wings of a 69; McLaren, Bush to 13; McAllister, Wings Above the 124; Watt, “Those Magnificent Men,” 28.

17. Mallory, 202.

18. Yukon Government Records, YRG 1, Series 1, GOV 1679, f. 17, Yukon Archives.

19. For a discussion of these attempts, please see: Bennett, Yukon 121.

20. Author interview with Kerry Karram, August 26, 2013; Lunny, Spirit of the Watt, “Those Magnificent Men,” 27; Ellis, Canada’s Flying 240–43; and Watt, “Pushing the Frontier Back,” 52.

21. The fascinating story of these air companies, and the colourful characters who ran them, has been ably told by other authors. For more detailed explorations, please see: Cameron, Yukon Ellis, Canada’s Flying Main, Voyageurs of the and McAllister, Wings Over the Yukon.

22. Bennett, Yukon 122.

23. Bennett, Yukon 122; Weicht, Air Route to the 100–01; and McMillan, “My Flying Career,” 11. For more information on United Air Transport/Yukon Southern Air Transport and Grant McConachie, please see: Keith, Bush Pilot with a

24. Information and quotes in this section are from: Ellis, Canada’s Flying 248; Melady, 56–60; Milberry, Aviation in 42; Henry, Uncharted 63–64; Watt, “Pushing the Frontier Back,” 52; and Watt, “Those Magnificent Men,” 28.

25. “Civil Aviation Statistics for 1929,” Canadian (April 1930), 46.

26. Bonnie Dickie, “The Flying Santas Remember,” Up Here (December/January 1986), 45; Reid, Wings of a 65–68; and McLaren, Bush to 9.

27. “Mail by Airplane,” [Whitehorse] Weekly July 6, 1918; Frank Ellis, “Early Northern Air Mail.” The Beaver (Winter 1954), 12–15; and Berton, I Married the 135.

28. The story of the Lindberghs’ flight across the Arctic is detailed in: Lindbergh, North to the 10, 22, 26–27, and 77–78. Additional information from: Grierson, Challenge to the 304–06; Trevor Lloyd, “Aviation in Arctic North America and Greenland,” Polar Vol. 5, Issue 35–36 (December 1948), 166; McAllister, Wings Above the 41–42

29. Information in this section is from: “The HBC Packet,” The Beaver (December 1934), 5–8; and Grierson, Challenge to the 7, and 314–25. Modifications to the aircraft are listed on page 315 of that book.

30. These early Russian attempts to fly over the North Pole are outlined in: Baidukov, Over the North Smith-Matheson, 35–64; McAllister, Wings Above the 37; and Grierson, Challenge to the 446–86.

31. For accounts of how Canadians cooperated in 1937–38 search, please see: McAllister, Wings Above the and “Our Search for Levanevsky as told to Canadian Aviation by Air Commodore H. Hollick-Kenyon,” Canadian Aviation (October 1937), 3–4, 34. As Smith Matheson details in during the late 1980s and early 1990s several hobbyists made attempts to find the downed plane without success.

32. Mayo Historical Society, Gold & 194. The story is related in Karram’s Four and according to her, it was also the first fatality for Western Canada Airways.

33. “The Fur Trade,” The Beaver (March 1937), 56–59; Armour Mackay, “Mercy Flight,” The Beaver (March 1948); Fuller, 125 Years of Canadian 207; Herb Britton, “Days gone by — Bill Catton 1899 — 1974” Headingly Headliner; Henry, Uncharted 181; McAllister, Wings Over the 109; and Morrison, True 126.

34. Information in previous section from: Smith and Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation, People of the xlviii and lvii; Charlie Peter Charlie interviewed by Elaine Shorty, Yukon Archives Collection, VGFN, March 11, 1993; Newman, Merchant xiv–xv, and 207–12; and Morrison, True 53 and

35. Charlie Thomas interviewed by Jane Montgomery, VGFN, July 24, 2004; and Dick Nukon interview with Marilyn Jenson, VGFN, August, 9, 1994.

36. “Down North with the Governor,” The Beaver (December 1932), 131–35; “The Fur Trade,” The Beaver (March 1935), 61–62; “The Fur Trade,” The Beaver (March 1937), 56–59; and Newman, Merchant 240–41.

37. The information in the following section is from: “Floats: A Flying Episode Off Eskimo Point, Hudson Bay,” The (June 1933), 48–52.

38. The details in this paragraph are from: “The HBC Packet,” The (December 1934), 5; “The Fur Trade,” The Beaver (March 1937), 57; “Floats: A Flying Episode,” 48.

39. The next section draws on: Smith, The Mad 36, 50, 143; and Zaslow, 133.

40. Alfred Charlie interview, January 20, 1995, VGFN, published in Smith, People of the 247.

41. The information in the following section is taken primarily from: Denny May and Owen Brierley, “The Chronicles of W.R. (Wop) May,” (last accessed May 21, 2014); Dick North, “Interview with Earle Hersey,” Yukon Magazine (October 1969); Garry Saunders, “Air Services’ 50th Anniversary,” Royal Canadian Mounted Police Vol. 49, No. 10 (1987), 5; Reid, Wings of a 70–7; Milberry, Air Transport in Canada, Vol. 1, 83; Smith, People of the 250; and Gibson-Sutherland, Canada’s Aviation 42.

42. Dick Nukon interview on August 9, 1994, Marilyn Jenson Collection, VGFN; and La Pierre House Oral History (March 1994). This information was also published in Smith, People of the 248–49.

43. Quotes in the following paragraphs are from: “The Hunt for the Mad Trapper of Rat River – as told by ‘Wop’ May to the 12th Calgary Scout Troop, Feb 19, 1952,” (last accessed May 21, 2014).

44. Smith, The Mad Trapper, 106.

45. La Pierre House Oral History (March 1994); Dollie Moses interview, March 19, 1994; Smith, People of the 249–50; and T. Shawn Giilck, “Mad Trapper Chase Recalled,” Northern News February 21, 2013.


Chapter 4: The Northern Front

1. The information for this section is from: Kikkert “Creating a Role: The Royal Canadian Air Force in the Arctic, 1945–1953,” (paper, De-Icing Required! The Historical Dimension of the Canadian Air Force’s Experience in the Arctic, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, June 2010); Wood, “Northern Skytrails: Part Two,” The Roundel (December 1948), 22; Wood, “Northern Skytrails,” 31; Wood, “Northern Skytrails: Part VII,” The (May 1949), 24; Wood, DFC, “Northern Skytrails: Part Three,” The (January 1949), 30–31; Wood, DFC “Northern Skytrails: Part IV,” The Roundel (February 1949), 22–30; Wood, “Northern Skytrails: Part V,” The Roundel (March 1949), 26–28; Shaw, Photographing Canada from Flying 129–35; McCaffery, Bush Planes and Bush 25; Milberry, Sixty 32 and 35; Milberry, Air Transport in Vol. 153–55.

2. Much of the information in the following section is from: Saunders, “Air Services’ 50th Anniversary,” 5–10.

3. Wood, “Northern Skytrails: Part V,” 22–28.

4. Quoted material in this section from: Wood, “Northern Skytrails: Part V,” 22–24.

5. Saunders, “Air Services’ 50th Anniversary,” 12. The author says only three of the Dragonflies were drafted, the fourth was kept in storage at “N” Division.

6. Milberry, Air Transport in Canada, Vol. 153; and Wood, “Northern Skytrails,” 31.

7. Newman, Merchant 240.

8. “News of the Fur Trade,” The Beaver (June 1940), 53; and “H.B. Beech — B.M.I. On Long Hop,” Canadian Aviation (March 1940), 56.

9. “News of the fur trade,” The Beaver (June 1940), 53; and Newman, Merchant 240.

10. Information in this paragraph from: “Single-Engined Beech for H. Bay Company,” Canadian Aviation (July 1940), 50; “Fur Trade News,” The (May 1940), 56; “Winter Packet,” The Beaver (December 1941); “Winter Packet,” The Beaver (December 1943); and “War and the Company,” The Beaver (December 1939).

11. Morrison, True 127 and 130. Otto Nordling, a long-time Yukoner, compiled a list of approximately ninety-seven people who gave a Yukon address upon enlisting in all branches of service in the Second World War.

12. “Gordon McIntyre’s War Tale,” Whitehorse November 10, 1977. McIntyre ended up in the First Survey Regiment of the Royal Canadian Artillery.

13. Information and quotes in the following paragraph are from: Norm Hartnell (compiled by Sherron Jones), “Memories,” Moccasin Telegraph Special (April 14, 2004); and interview with John Gould, December 10, 2010, Dawson City, Yukon.

14. Information in this paragraph on women’s participation in the war effort is from: Dawn Dorothy Nickel, “Realities and Reflections: Women and the Yukon Frontier During the Alaska Highway Period,” (master’s thesis, University of Alberta, Fall 1998); Smith, Warplanes to 202; Lackenbauer, “Introduction,” in Aboriginal Peoples and the Canadian Military: Historical Perspectives, P. Whitney Lackenbauer, Craig Mantle, and Scott Scheffield (Kingston: Canadian Defence Academy Press, P. Whitney Lackenbauer and R. Scott Sheffield, “The Historiography on Canadian Native Peoples and the World Wars,” in Aboriginal Peoples and the Canadian and Grace Poulin, “Invisible Women: Aboriginal Servicewomen in Canada’s Second World War,” in Aboriginal Peoples and the Canadian 137–69.

15. Details on northern indigenous participation from: Scott Scheffield, “‘Of pure European Descent and of the White Race’: Recruitment Policy and Aboriginal Canadians, 1939–1945,” Canadian Military Vol. 5, No. 1 (Spring 1996), 11–15; P. Whitney Lackenbauer, John Moses, R. Scott Sheffield, Maxime Gohier, “Chapter Five,” Aboriginal People in the Canadian (last accessed May 21, 2014); and Chuck Tobin, “Yukoners remember those who served,” Whitehorse November 10, [2009].

16. Information in this paragraph from: Tobin, “Yukoners remember”; “Yukon has reached the quota,” Dawson Weekly June 12, 1941; Smith, People of the Lakes, LIX; and Alfred Charlie interviewed by Robert Bruce Jr., June 10, 2011, Vuntut Gwichin Oral History Project.

17. The majority of the following section on the Lend-Lease program and the creation on the Northwest Staging Route is from: Grant, Polar 254; Smith, Warplanes to 36, 45, 67–68, 85, 89–90, 94–95, 105–6, 120–23, 135, 137, 146, 156–57, 167, and 178–79; Main, Voyageurs of the 171–73; Milberry, Air Transport in Canada, Vol. 161–64; and Bennett, Yukon 122.

18. Zaslow, 213; Grant, Polar 271; and “Yukon Southern Planes Use Wheels Winter and Summer in North,” Canadian Aviation (December 1940), 60.

19. “Improve Airport at Whitehorse,” Canadian Aviation (1941).

20. “Yukon Route Now Defense Lifeline,” Canadian Aviation (January 1942).

21. Flight Lieutenant Perkin noted this in April 1943 in the RCAF Daily Diary for North West Air Command Headquarters at Edmonton, Alberta. Copies of Department of National Defence microfilm at Yukon Archives.

22. “Building Airports to Yukon,” Canadian Aviation (May 1942), 26.

23. French, “North-West Staging Route,” Shell Aviation News (December 1957), 12–14.

24. RCAF North West Air Command Daily Diary, November 2–4, 1944. Yukon Archives microfilm.

25. RCAF North West Air Command Daily Diary, December 25, 1942. Yukon Archives microfilm.

26. McGinniss, “Weekly Progress Report,” RCAF North West Air Command, August 26, 1944; French, “North-West Staging Route,” 14; and Zaslow, 217 and 223.

27. Morrison, True 147.

28. “Troupers visit RCAF outposts on North Route,” Edmonton April 1945.

29. Interview with Gordon Toole.

30. Smith, Warplanes to 137.

31. “Winter Operation Hints from Experience in North,” Canadian Aviation (December 1940), 50 and 53.

32. Smith, Warplanes to 85.

33. Some of these crashes are outlined in: Smith, Warplanes to McCaffery, Bush Planes and Bush McAllister, Wings Over the and French, “North-West Staging Route,” 11–12.

34. Smith Matheson, 81.

35. “Russ Baker of CPA Completes ... Rescue Job, Northern Style ... Saving 24 U.S. Air Force Men,” Canadian Aviation (October 1944).

36. McAllister, Wings Over the French, “North-West Staging Route,” 14–15; and Stanley W. Dzuiban, “Military Relations Between the United States and Canada, 1939–1945” (Washington, DC: United States Army, 1959), 203.

37. French, “North-West Staging Route,” 15.

38. Sandy Babcock, “Operation CANON: A Case Study of Early RCAF Arctic Search and Rescue Capabilities” (paper, De-Icing Required! The Historical Dimension of the Canadian Air Force’s Experience in the Arctic, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, June 2010).

39. Information in this paragraph from: P.S. Barry, “‘Punch’ Dickins and the Origins of Canol’s Mackenzie Air Fields,” Arctic, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Dec 1979), 366–373; Smith, Warplanes to 49, 52, 54; and Leigh, And I Shall CANOL stands for Canadian American Norman Oil Line.

40. Details in this paragraph from: Morrison, True 134; and Thomson, Skyview 98.

41. This paragraph draws on the following sources: John T. Greenwood, “General Bill Hoge and the Alaska Highway,” in The Alaska Highway: Papers of the 40th Anniversary and Heath Twichell, “The role of the Public Roads Administration,” The Alaska and French, “North-West Staging Route,” 16.

42. Information in this section is from: Russell, Tales of a 4, 8, 20, 69, 85.

43. Morrison, True 134 and 144.

44. “CP Air Lines Rushes Essential Workers into North,” Canadian Aviation (September 1943).

45. “Mercy Flight under Sub-Zero Weather Piloted by Les Cook Saves Soldier’s Life,” Whitehorse December 4, 1942. In a sad twist of fate, this article appeared the day he and two engineers, Donald Dickson and Kenneth McLean, died when the Norseman they were test-flying crashed on a Whitehorse street. In 1944, the U.S. awarded him the U.S. Air Medal for several mercy flights he made for them. For a full account, please see: Cameron, Yukon

46. Zaslow, 227; and Grant, Polar 272.

47. Information on the Canol project is from: Morrison, True 133–37, 149; Main, Voyageurs of the 175–80; Zaslow, 222; Grant, Polar 261 and 273; “Oil for the Planes of Alaska,” The Beaver (September 1943); and Richard S. Finnie, “The Origin of Canol’s Mackenzie Air Fields,” Vol. 33, No. 2 (June 1980), 273–79.

48. This paragraph draws on information from: Morrison, True 134 and 145; Grant, Polar 148 and 279–80; Zaslow, 223 and 227; and Coates and Morrison, The Alaska Highway in World War 4–6 and 11.

49. Joanne MacDonald, “General Store in Champagne thrived during 1940s,” [publication unknown]. From clippings file at Yukon Archives.

50. Information on epidemics and the environment during this period drawn from: Morrison, True 138–42; Alison Reid, “For Native people, life changed forever,” The Optimist (June 1992), 6–7; Cruikshank, Life Lived Like a “Oil for the Planes of Alaska”; and Mabel Braaethen interview stored at the NWT Archives.

51. Info for this section on the Eldorado mine is from: Edmonton Bulletin (Saturday Nov 17, 1945), 22; Grant, Polar 274; Henry, Uncharted 50–51; Watt, “Pushing Back the Frontiers,” 55; and Canadian Broadcast Corporation, “Mining for a bomb,” (last accessed May 21, 2014).

52. “Two thousand people take part in V-E Day Celebration here,” Whitehorse May 11, 1945.


Chapter 5: Arctic Threats

1. Information in this section from: Milberry, Sixty 205; Kikkert, “Creating a Role”; Raymond Stouffer, “Military Culture and the Mobile Striking Force”; and Richard Goette, “The Roundel and Building RCAF Arctic Air Mindedness during the Early Cold War,” all papers from the De-Icing Required! conference. Much of the Air Force’s activities, strategies, and DEW Line work has been ably covered by Larry Milberry and P. Whitney Lackenbauer in their works.

2. This quote and the following one are from: D.J. Blain, “Sweetbriar Diary,” The Roundel (December 1950), 37–46; and L.J. Nevin, “Operation Deep Freeze,” The Roundel (August 1958), 20–23.

3. For more detailed explanations of these navigational phenomena, please see: Cable, “Air Force – a Leader in the Arctic”; and Bergquist, Great

4. Milberry, Sixty Years, 251; and Kikkert, “Creating a Role.”

5. “Report on the Low Frequency LORAN Program,” Privy Council Office, August 5, 1947, DHH 112.3m2.

6. Bud Laurin, “The end of an era as the Air Force leaves the Yukon,” Whitehorse Star, May 13, 1968; and Rusty Erlam, “Now it can be told,” Whitehorse May 13, 1968.

7. Information in this paragraph from: W.H. Cleaver, “Operation Photo,” The Roundel (February 1950), 14–17; and McAllister, Wings Over the 20.

8. Correspondence with Fred Aldworth, December 9, 2010; and Sean M. Maloney, “Canada’s Arctic Sky Spies: The Director’s Cut,” Canadian Military Journal (August 2008).

9. Theriault, Trespassing in God’s 33–36, 39, 41, 46–48, 52, 58, 62; and Milberry, Sixty 396.

10. Information in this paragraph from: Milberry, Sixty 217, 221, 224–25, and 228—30; and McAllister, Wings Over the 92.

11. Information in this paragraph from: interview with Bryce Chase, April 13, 2011; Milberry, Sixty Years, 232; Grant, Polar 272; Lackenbauer, “If it ain’t broke, don’t break it: expanding and enhancing the Canadian Rangers,” 3; and Lackenbauer, “Canada’s Northern Defenders,” 355.

12. Grant, Polar 258 and 276; P. Whitney Lackenbauer and Ryan Shackleton, “Inuit-Air Force Relations in the Qikiqtani Region during the Early Cold War,” (paper, De-Icing Required! The Historical Dimension of the Canadian Air Force’s Experience in the Arctic, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, June 2010).

13. Kikkert, “Creating a Role.”

14. Morrison, True 165.

15. Rachel Lea Heide, “Frigid Ambitions: The Venture of the Alert Wireless Station and Lessons Learned for the Canada First Defence Strategy,” (paper, De-Icing Required! The Historical Dimension of the Canadian Air Force’s Experience in the Arctic, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, June 2010).

16. Berton, Mysterious 211–17.

17. Information in this paragraph from: Morrison, True 164–66; and L.C. Morrison, “NORAD – Only the name’s the same,” The Roundel (September 1963), 3–7.

18. The following section draws on: interview with Bryce Chase, April 13, 2011; and Dickie, “The Flying Santas Remember.”

19. Information in this paragraph is from: Morrison, True 165; Newman, Merchant 241 and 245; Smith, People of the 161; Wachowich, 270; Thrasher, Skid Row 55.

20. Newman, Merchant 248–49; and Sandra Martin, “James Houston and Kananginak Pootoogook,” Working the Dead Beat: 50 Lives that Changed Canada (Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2013), 157–65.

21. “Conditions Amongst the Eskimos — Resolute Bay, January 5, 1961,” LAC, RG 18, Vol. 55, File TA 500-8-1-14.

22. Previous quotes and information from: Lackenbauer and Shackleton, “Inuit-Air Force Relations.”

23. Dickson, The Dew Line Years: Voices from the Coldest Cold 35–36.

24. Berton, Mysterious 267.

25. Freeman, Life Among the 52.

26. Following section from: Thrasher, Skid Row 71, 80, and 160–61.

27. Information in this paragraph from: Mary-Ellen Kelm, “Change, Continuity, Renewal,” in Colonizing Bodies: Aboriginal Health and Healing in British Columbia, 1900–1950 UBC Press, 1998), 82; Meijer Drees, Healing 1 and 9.

28. Information and quotes in this paragraph from: Grant, Arctic 249; Drees, Healing 2–3; Morrison, True North, 164; Lackenbauer and Shackleton, “Inuit-Air Force Relations”; and Wachowich, Saqiyuq, 271.

29. The information in this paragraph is from: Thrasher, Skid Row Eskimo, 85; Kelm, “Change, Continuity, Renewal”; and Drees, Healing 30.

30. This paragraph and the following one draw on: Lyall, An Arctic Man, 165, 169, and 204–5; and Whyard, Ernie Boffa, 78.

31. Wachowich, 91–95.

32. The information in this paragraph comes from: Ann Meekitjuk Hanson, “Finding Hope and Healing in Memories of Our Past,” Above and Beyond (March/April 2012), 23–29; and Lyall, An Arctic 170.

33. The following section draws primarily on: Grant, Arctic 249. Drees, Healing 9–10, 14, 16, and 96.

34. David E. Pelly, “The Mysterious Disappearance of Father Buliard, OMI,” Above and Beyond (July/August 2005).

35. Hamilton, Flying 134–35.

36. Callison, Pack Dogs to 153.

37. Lynn A. Hamilton email, November 25, 2013.

38. Following section taken from: Drees, Healing 79, 83, 93, 105, and 144.

39. Lyall, An Arctic 200.

40. Drees, Healing 9.

41. Ibid., 23.

42. Meekitjuk Hanson, “Finding Hope and Healing.”

43. Morrison, True 152.


Chapter 6: New Horizons

1. Information in this section primarily from an interview with Fred Carmichael, November 2010. Also draws on: Darielle Talarico, “The Flying Carmichaels,” Up Here (June 1993), 20–21; and Erik Watt, “Freddie Carmichael: Flying into the future,” Northwest Explorer (Spring 1989), 19–23.

2. Keith Billington, who was a nurse at Fort McPherson, writes about several of these medevacs in his book, House Calls by Dogsled: Six Years in an Arctic Medical

3. Aviation Safety (last accessed May 20, 2014).

4. For more information on Max Ward and Wardair, please see: Melady, and Ward, The Max Ward

5. Render, No Place for a 50.

6. The information in this paragraph from: Render, No Place for a 51 and 53.

7. Details and quoted material in this paragraph from: “Canadian ... Women in Aviation,” Canadian Aviation (February 1940), 19–21, and 42.

8. “Pioneer CP Air Flight Attendant Jets North on Nostalgic Flight,” CP Air July 7, 1980.

9. Interview with Gordon and Rose Toole, October 25, 2010.

10. Interview with Fran Phipps, August 2010. Additional information from: Peter Moon, “Whisky Whisky Papa,” publication and date unknown, probably c. 1971; Avery, Whiskey Whiskey 4, 34, 36–37, 50, and 96; and Smith Matheson, Flying the

11. This paragraph draws on following sources: Render, No Place for a 365; email correspondence with Betty Campbell; Frank Flaherty, “Aerial Survey of Canada Immediate Postwar Need,” Canadian Aviation (November 1943); Elizabeth A. Fleming, “Mapping a Northern Land: obtaining the high altitude photography required for the completion of the mapping of Canada by the use of wartime aircraft (1951–1963),” Vol. 64, No. 4 (2010), 463–472; Avery, and Robert N. Pettus, “Flying world-wide with Kenting Aerial Surveys,” CAHS Journal (Summer 1999), 52–63, and 74.

12. This section uses following sources: Render, No Place for a 157, 160–61, and 163; and Smith Matheson, Flying the Frontiers, 196–69, and 201–12.

13. This section drawn from: interview with Dick de Blicquy; and Render, No Place for a 190.

14. Paul Bickford, “Flying for a living,” Northern News May 2, 2005.

15. Whyard, Ernie 114–18; and Smith Matheson, Flying the Frontiers Vol. 3, 230–6.

16. Hamilton, Flying 103, and 154; and “Wolves kill horses,” Whitehorse March 28, 1963.

17. Bereza, The Big Dipper Wheeler, Skippers of the Bereza and Shirlee Smith Matheson have profiled many of these pilots.

18. Louise Buffum diary from NWT Archives; Richard Finnie, “Treaty Time at Fort Rae” The Beaver (March 1940); and Edith Josie, “Here are the News,” Whitehorse August 29, 1968.

19. Lyall, An Arctic 166–68.

20. This paragraph drawn from: Billington, Housecalls by 94, and 183; and interview with Stephen Frost Sr.

21. Quotes and information in this section from: “History of Old Crow, Yukon. Story by Mrs. Effie Linklater, Old Crow Resident”; Charlie Thomas, interview, Gwitchin First Nation oral history — “Recollections” Project; Interview with Stephen Frost Sr.; and Edith Josie, “The Best of Edith Josie: Old Crow News,” A collection of Edith Josie from the columns of the Whitehorse Star. Yukon Territory, 1965, 1966–67, and 1969–70.

22. This paragraph drawn from: Main, Voyageurs of the 307; Morrison, True 56; McLaren, Bush to 29; Louise Buffum’s diary, September 14, 15, 18, and 19, 1939, NWT Archives; Smith Matheson, Flying the Frontiers Vol 149.

23. Information in this section from: Smith Matheson, Flying the Frontiers Vol 150–53 and 161. William “Bill” Leising also detailed his experiences in his memoir, Arctic which was used to promote the Oblates’ work in the North and raise funds for operations.

24. As Smith Matheson notes on page 162 of Flying the Frontiers Vol. Leising would have liked to buy a DC-3 — and one was offered to him for one dollar at one point — but superiors thought it was too large as they were starting to close schools.

25. Leising, Arctic 193. After 1900, the Anglicans opened a school at Carcross, Yukon, and the Catholics opened one at Hay River, NWT. In June 1953, for example, Leising flew the Norseman ten hours a day for three weeks returning 250 children to their homes around the territory.

26. Information in this section from: Milberry, Air Transport in Canada, Vol. 369; Smith Matheson, Flying the Frontiers Vol 2, 47 and 159; and Lyall, An Arctic 185–57, and 224.

27. Information in this paragraph from Hamilton, Flying 174–75.

28. Leising, Arctic 286; and Lyall, An Arctic 188–89.

29. This paragraph draws on the following sources: Thrasher, Skid Row 3–4; Morrison, True North, 153–54; Newman, Merchant 245; Wachowich, 108.

30. Morrison, True 156 and 176; and Grant, Arctic Justice, 250. For an excellent discussion of the history of residential schools in Canada and their outcomes, please see: Milloy, A National

31. Milloy, A National xvi; Coates and Morrison, Land of the Midnight 287; Lyall, An Arctic 185 and 230

32. Morrison, True 154.


Chapter 7: Miracles, Tragedies, and Just Plain Luck

1. Operation Mike: The Search for 2469, (last accessed May 21, 2014).

2. Smith Matheson outlines the story of Johnny Bourassa in True Stories of Canadian Aviation Tragedies.

3. This section drawn from an interview with George Popadynec and his collection of documents and clippings from the time, as well as Paul Koring, “The Watson Lake Triangle Incidents,” Yukon February 25, 1976.

4. Following section: Mokler, Aircraft 67 and 77; and Patrick Fahy, “History of CASARA Edmonton” (April 2007).

5. “Miracles Happen” section, unless otherwise indicated, from: Helen Klaben, Hey, I’m “Hey, I’m Alive,” Whitehorse reprinted June 16, 1990; Mokler, Aircraft 92–93, 96–97, 103–7, and 109. Mokler never names Flores and Klaben but there are enough identifying details about the aircraft, location, and date to make the connection.

6. McCallum, Tales of an Old Bold 90.

7. “Where are they now? Ties That Bond,” Whitehorse November 26, 1993.

8. McCallum, Tales of an Old Bold Pilot, 88 and 93.

9. Klaben called him Jack George while other accounts say his name was Frank George.

10. McCallum, Tales of an Old Bold Pilot, 89.

11. “Where are they now?” Whitehorse

12. Flo Carter, “First plane crash pictures,” Whitehorse April 1, 1963.

13. Jimmy Smothers, “Young soldier’s grandfather at center of famous survival tale,” Gadsden December 26, 2010.

14. Carter, “First plane crash pictures.”

15. “Where are they now?”; and Mokler, Aircraft 93.

16. “The ‘Miracle’ Survivors of a Yukon Air Crash Relive Their Ordeal,” People March 24, 1975.

17. Whitehorse Star editorial, March 28, 1963.

18. The information in the following section from: Gaffin, Edward

19. Section on Chuck McAvoy drawn from: Smith Matheson, 97; Mike W. Bryant, “Ghost Plane Found,” Northern News August 6, 2003; “Bodies, wreckage reveal fate of mystery plane,” CBC August 6, 2003; Mike Bryant, “McAvoy plane comes home,” Northern News September 1, 2004.

20. Section on Bob Gauchie from: Mike W. Bryant, “Stranded 58 days,” Northern News April 6, 2007; Jennifer Pritchett, “Bush pilot remembers being stranded on the Northern barrens,” Northern News July 2, 1997; and “Bush pilot rescued after 58 days in NWT wilderness,” CBC Digital Archives (last accessed May 21, 2014)

21. Travis-Henikoff, Dinner with a

22. The section on Marten Hartwell largely from: Tadman, The and Stephen and Susan Hume, “It was the first day of his life,” Calgary December 11, 1972.

23. Ed Logozar landed in the company’s Twin Otter, and the two decided Hartwell would do the mercy flight.

24. There are several spellings of Kootook’s first names, David Pisuriak and Davidie Pessurajak being the most common. I have decided to go with the most prevalent in reports at the time.

25. Tadman, The 122–23 and 98. Also, the aircraft was apparently missing key equipment and Hartwell said he had complained about the instruments in the past.

26. Hume, “It was the first day of his life.”

27. “Eskimo boy helped pilot survive in Arctic,” Calgary December 11, 1972.

28. Milberry, Sixty 402–3.

29. “MOT gets earful at Hartwell inquest,” March 7, 1973; “Jury makes recommendations,” News of the March 7, 1973; and Brian Thompson, “Better transportation links says NWT Chamber,” News of the March 7, 1973.

30. Svjetlana Mlinarevic, “Camp of a cannibal,” Northern News December 7, 2012.


Chapter 8: The Top of the World

1. Monty Alford, “Crossing the Kluane Park glaciers on skis,” Whitehorse 1980.

2. McAllister, Wings Over the 159.

3. “High-level test in the Yukon,” Airborne (March/April 1981), 41 and 60–62.

4. Information in the rest of this section is drawn from: an interview with Joe Muff; Andy Williams, “Philip P. Upton, 1919–1984,” Arctic Institute of North Vol. 37, No. 3 (1984).

5. Jane Gaffin, “Bushed: From Kennedys to mine mechanics,” Yukon October 11, 1996; Stephanie Waddell, “Aviation pioneer flew U.S. senator to Mt. Kennedy,” Whitehorse December 18, 2009.

6. McAllister, Wings Above the 159.

7. Information in this section comes from: a transcript of an interview with Kurt Koken, May 27, 1978. Allen Wright fonds, Yukon Archives. MSS 131, #83/79 900-8-14; and Lord Hunt, “The Yukon Alpine Centennial Expedition — 1967,” Alpine Journal (1968).

8. Lloyd Freese to Larry Tremblay, “Report on Rescue of John Lauchin’s Party from the South West Ridge of Mount Logan — Kluane National Park,” June 27, 1978, Yukon Archives.

9. The following story is from: Mark Hume, “Tears for fellow climbers,” Edmonton June 18, 1982; “Rescue,” Whitehorse June 16, 1982; John Crump, “Rescued aren’t upset Alouette helicopter wasn’t available,’ Whitehorse June 17, 1982.

10. Avery, Whiskey, Whiskey, 102–4.

11. “Arctic flight for EXPO,” Canadian Aviation (February 1967).

12. Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Aviation Section, RCMP Air Division, 1937–1973 (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1973).

13. Avery, Whiskey, Whiskey, 112.

14. Ibid., 117.

15. Saunders, “Air services’ 50th anniversary.”

16. Avery, Whiskey, Whiskey, 113–14.

17. Moon, “Whisky Whisky Papa”; Avery, Whiskey, Whiskey, 114–15.

18. “People who go to the Pole,” Northwest Vol 3, No 1, (Winter 1984), 21–25.

19. Interview with Bob Heath, November 2010.

20. Kelly Cryderman, “The ice wasn’t thick enough,” The Ottawa (nd, 1997).

21. Interview with Bob Heath, November 2010.


Chapter 9: The Old and the Bold

1. The information in this section largely taken from: the Coroner’s report into the death of Don Bergren by the Province of British Columbia.

2. Larry Pynn, “The Golden Triangle,” Georgia March 20, 1997.

3. Chuck Tobin, “Search for missing pilot is suspended,” Whitehorse August 15, 1996.

4. Interview with Bob Heath, November 2010.

5. Spring, The Sky’s the Limit: Canadian Women Bush 54–55; and Melady, 218. Erik Vogel, the twenty-four-year-old pilot of Wapiti Airways twin-engined Piper Chieftan that crashed in northern Alberta on October 19, 1984, details the pressure he felt in Carol Shaben, Into the Abyss: An Extraordinary True

6. Interview with Joe Muff, December 2010.

7. Erik Watt, “Don’t worry doc, we’ll make it,” Up Here (October/November 1992).

8. “Flying bandit sleeps,” Northern News November 16, 2007.

9. Interview with Dan Reynolds, December 2010.

10. Interview with Helmut Schoener, December 2010.

11. Email from John Faulkner, January 6, 2011.

12. Appeal files in Rolls murder case,” Whitehorse May 8, 1978.

13. Interview with Adam Morrison, October 2010; and “Shots fired at helicopter,” Klondike Sun, July 27, 1989.

14. The information in this paragraph is from: Main, Voyageurs of the 307; McAllister, Wings Over the Saunders, “Air Services’ 50th Anniversary,” 12; RCMP Air Division, and Josie, “Here are the News,” October 19, 1965.

15. This paragraph drawn from: E.P Winged Mounties,” The Journal of the CAHS, Vol. 6, No. 4 (1968), and RCMP Air Division, 1937–1973.

16. Saunders, “Air Services’ 50th Anniversary.”

17. Michael Vlessides, “Forever Red: RCMP Celebrate 125 years,” Above & Beyond (Summer 1998), 24–30.

18. Email from Ron Ferris, April 27, 2010; “Yukon bishop killed in plane crash,” Western Catholic April 24, 2000; and “Yukon Bishop well-suited to life in remote diocese,” National April 19, 2000.

19. Wachowich, 245.

20. Nancy McLeod, “Democracy takes wing,” Up (December/February 1988).

21. Joanne Irons, “Getting a baby,” Up September/October 1988.

22. Interview with Bob Heath, December 2010.

23. Email correspondence with Marlie McLaren Kelsey.

24. This paragraph from: Render, No Place for a 273, and 299–301.

25. Stephanie Myles, “Female pilot recognized as pioneer,” Ottawa May 30, 1992.

26. Melady, 217–18.

27. Render, No Place for a 288 and 291; and email correspondence with Rosella Bjornson.

28. The information in this paragraph taken from: Erik Watt, “History and Mystery,” Up Here (January/February 1999); Braden, On Good Bob Heath interview; Morrison, True 169–72; and Coates and Morrison, Land of the Midnight 147.

29. This paragraph drawn from: Josie, “Here are the News,” 1968–70; and Evans, From Fox Moths to Jet 62 and 179.

30. The information for this section comes from: Western Arctic Handbook Committee, Canada’s Western 37 and 220; Adam Johnson, “The past, re-examined,” Northern News August 28, 2006; Morrison, True 152, 170–72 and 181; Coates and Morrison, The Land of the Midnight 147–48; and The Dene Nation’s website (accessed May 14, 2014).

31. Canada’s Western 221; and Fred Carmichael interview.

32. Bob Heath interview.

33. Pynn, “The Golden Triangle.”

34. Joe Muff interview.

35. Section on Air North from: Joe Muff interview; McAllister, Wings Over the 147, 150; and Chuck Tobin, “Last DC-3 soars off into history,” Whitehorse May 6, 1998.

36. John Valliant, “Buffalo Joe and his amazing frozen flying machines,” Sports Afield (March 2000), 68.

37. Ice Pilots NWT, Season 3, Episode 13 “Coming Home” — interview with Joe McBryan. Filmed July 2011.

38. Knight, Buffalo and 149.

39. McAllister, Wings Above the Arctic, 86; Kikkert, “Creating a Role”; and Lackenbauer and Shackleton, “Inuit- Air Force Relations.”

40. Milberry, Sixty 405.

41. Dickie, “The flying Santas remember.”

42. Yukon Air Crash Site Inventory.

43. Heide, “Frigid Ambitions.”

44. Clyde H. Farnsworth, “After a Plane Crash, 30 Deadly Hours in the Arctic,” New York November 5, 1991.

45. Milberry, Air Transport in Canada Vol 923–27.

46. Kikkert, “Creating a Role”; and Pascale Dion, “Patrolling Canada’s High Arctic to maintain sovereignty,” Up Here (July/August 2004).

47. Following section drawn from: interview with Bob Heath; Patricia Saunders, “Dew Line closing signals end of era,” Inuvik July 22, 1993; and Berton, Mysterious 184.

48. Corley-Smith, 10,000 222.

49. Bruce, The Pig That


Epilogue: “I’d Like to Do It All Over Again”

1. “Boyd Benjamin — Windspeaker Confidential,” Windspeaker, Vol. 27, Issue 4 (2009).

2. Stephanie Waddell, “Air North plans a moderate flight path,” Whitehorse March 26, 2010.

3. Transportation Safety Board of Canada, “Aviation Statistics — 2010,” (accessed January 2, 2014).

4. Carol Shaben, “Fly at your own risk,” The Walrus (November 2009); and Into the Abyss.

5. Chris Purdy, “Recovery in doubt for remains of Canadian plane-crash victims in Antarctica,” Globe and October 6, 2013.

6. Teresa Earle, “High flyer,” Explore (June 2009), 43–47, and 60–61.

7. Eva Holland, “What happened on the Iskut?” Up Here (November/December 2012).

8. Tristin Hopper, “NWT aviation company plans for fleet of futuristic blimps to haul cargo,” National August 31, 2011.

9. Margo McDiamid, “Mackenzie Valley pipeline facing possible revival,” CBC October 25, 2013.